Electronic Stethoscopes - Resources

Enclosed is the bibliography of the resources that we pulled from in conducting the electronic stethoscope technology assessment. There are not a lot of great single source resources out there, but with a combination of journal articles, books, websites, and thesis submissions we were able to compile a rather extensive resource list. We will update the resources as new articles are published.


Altunkaya, S., Kara, S., Gormus, N., & Herdem, S. (2010). Statisticallly Evaluation of Mechanical Heart Valve Thrombosis Using Heart Sounds. World Congress on Engineering 2010 Vol I. London, U.K.: World Congress on Engineering.

Balas, E. A., & Iakovidis, I. (1999). Distance Technologies for Patient Monitoring. BMJ , 319, 1-3.

Becker, K. W. (2009, January). Research into Adventitious Lung Sound Signals Originating From Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Electronic Auscultation . (Thesis submission, Stellenbosch University). Retrieved from,%20KW.pdf?sequence=1.

Blaufox, D. M. (2002). Ear to the Chest: An illustrated history fo the evolution of the stethoscope. Boca Raton: Parthenon Pub. Group.

Bodden, M. (1995). Binaural Modeling an Auditory Scene Analysis. Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (pp. 1-4). New Paltz, NY: IEEE.

Bodden, M. (1997). Instrumentation for Sound Quality Evaluation. ACUSTICA , 83, 775-783.

Cabot, R. C. (1999). Fundamentals of Modern Audio Measurement. Journal of Audio Engineering Society , 47 (9).

Callahan, P. P., Waugh, P. R., Granger, P. R., & Mathew, G. A. (2006). Objective Evaluation of Stethoscopes. US Respiratory Disease , 18-19.

Callahan, P. P., Waugh, P. R., Mathew, G. A., & Granger, P. R. (2007, July/August). Stethoscopes: What Are We Hearing? Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology , 318-323.

Case, M. F., Groth, M. F., Anderson, M. T., Byrne, M. F., Proctor, M. F., Kealy, M. F., et al. (1998, June). Telemedicine in Emergency Medicine: Information Paper. American College of Emergency Physicians.

Chien, J. C., Huang, M. C., Lin, Y. D., & Chong, F. C. (2006). A Study of Heart Sound and Lung Sound Seperation by Independent Component Analysis Technique. IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (pp. 5708-5711). New York City: IEEE.

Dahl, L. B., Hasvold, P., Arild, E., & Hasvold, T. (2002). Heart Murmurs Recorded by a Sensor Based Electronic Stethoscope and E-mailed for Remote Assessment. Arch Dis Child , 297-301.

Earis, J. E., & Cheetham, B. M. (2000). Current Methods Used For Computerized Respiratory Sound Analysis. European Repiratory Review , 10 (77), 586-590.

Gavish PhD, B., & Heller MD, O. (1992). A Practical Method For Evaluating Stethoscopes: Quantify Stethoscope Performance Using This Simple Method. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology , 97-102.

Gonzalez, R. (2003, February 26). Basic concepts of Digital Audio. Retrieved November 12, 2010, from

Grenier MSc, M. C., Gagnon ID, K., Genest Jr., M. J., Durand BEng, J., & Durand PhD, L. G. (1998). Clinical Comparison of Acoustic and Electronic Stethoscopes and Design of a New Electronic Stethoscope. The American Journal of Cardiology , 81, 653-656.

Hedayioglu, F. d. (2009, November 20). Heart Sound Segementation for Digital Stethoscope Integration . (Master's thesis, University of Porto). Retrived from

Hedayioglu, F. L., Mattos, S. S., Moser, L., & de Lima, M. E. (2007). Development Of A Tele-Stethoscope and Its Applicaiton in Pediatric Cardiology. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology , Vol. 45, 86-92.

Houten, C. V., Houten, J. V., & Latman, N. S. (2007). A Human Factors Evaluation of Stethoscopes. The FASEB Journal , 750.34.

Houtsma, A. J., Curry, I. P., Sewell, J. M., & Bernard, W. N. A Dual-Mode Noise-Immune Stethoscope For Use In Noisy Vehicles.

Hoyte, H., Jensen, T., & Gjesdal, K. (2005). Cardiac Auscultation Training of Medical Students: A Comparison of Electronic Sensor-Based and Acoustic Stethoscopes. BMC Medical Education , 5 (14), 1-6.

Iversen MD, K., Greibe MD, R., Timm MD, H. B., Skovgaard MSci, L. T., Dalsgaard MD, M., Hendriksen MD, K. V., et al. (2005). A Randomized Trial Comparing Electronic and Conventional Stethoscopes. The American Journal of Medicine , 118, 1289.e1-1289.e4.

Johanson, M., Gustafsson, M., & Johansson, L. A. (n.d.). A Remote Auscultation Tool for Advanced Home Healthcare.

Jones, A., Jones, D., Kwong, K., & SC, S. (1998). Acoustic Performance of Three Stethoscope Chest Pieces. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society , 20 (6), 3219-3222.

Jones, A., Jones, R. D., Kwong, K., & Burns, Y. (1999). Effect of Positioning on Recorded Lung Sound Intensities in Subjects Without Pulmonary Dysfunction. Physical Therapy , 79 (7), 682-690.

Kandaswamy, A., Kumar, C. S., Ramanathan, R. P., Jayaraman, S., & Malmurugan, N. (2004). Neural Classifcation Of Lung Sounds Using Wavelet Coefficients. Computers in Biology and Medicine , 34, 523-537.

Kim MD, D., & Tavel MD, F. M. (2003). Assessment of Severity of Aortic Stenosis Through Time-Frequency Analysis of Murmor. CHEST , 124, 1638-1644.

Kraman, S. S., Wodicka, G. R., Pressler, G. A., & Pasterkamp, H. (2006). Comparison Of Lung Sound Transducers Using A Bioacoustic Transducer Testing System. Joural of American Physiology , 101, 469-476.

LEEDer Group Inc. (2005-2010). FDA Device Classification. Retrieved November 12, 2010, from

Mathew, G. A. (2004). Stethoscope channel characteristics. Thesis . Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Maxim Integrated Products. (2010, May 10). Introduction To Digital Stethoscopes and Electrical Component Selection Criteria. Retrieved 26 2010, October, from Maxim:

Mehrl, D., & Hagler, M. (1998). Active Learning Using Inexpensive Sound Cards For Circuits and Communication Experiments. IEEE , 1102-1106.

Murphy, R. (2007, January/February). Computerized Multichannel Lung Sound Analysis. IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY MAGAZINE , pp. 16-19.

Pasterkamp, H., Kraman, S. S., & Wodicka, G. R. (1997). State of the Art: Respiratory Souds Advances Beyond the Stethoscope. Am J Respir Crit Care Med , 156, 974-987.

Patricoski MD, C., Ferguson PhD, A. S., & Clancy RN, M. S. (2008). Electronic Stethoscopes Reviewing the Options. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from American Telemedicine Association:

Philip ME(E), M. J., & Raemer PhD, D. B. (1986). An Electronic Stethoscope is Judged Better Than Conventional Stethoscopes for Anesthesia Monitoring. Journal of Clinical Monitoring , 2, 151-154.

Puskin ScD, D. S., Cohen PhD, Z., Ferguson PhD, A. S., Krupinski PhD, E., & Spaulding PhD, R. (2010). Implementation and Evaluation of Telehealth Tools and Technologies. Telemedicine and e-Health , 16 (No. 1), January/February.

Schmidt, S. E., Toft, E., Holst-Hansen, C., Graff, C., & Struijk, J. J. (2008). Segmentation of Heart Sound Recordings from an Electronic Stethoscope by a Duration Dependent Hidden-Markov Model. Computers In Cardiology , 35, 345-349.

Stethoscope. (2010, October 22). Retrieved October 26, 2010, from Wikipedia:

Surendran, S. (2009, December ). EKG tracking for augmented standardized patient virtual pathology stethoscope heart auscultation. Thesis . India: Old Dominion University. .

Tourtier MD, J. P., Fontaine MD, E., Coste MD, S., Ramsang MD, S., Schiano MD, P., Viaggi MD, M., et al. (2010). In Flight Asucultaiton: Comparison of Electronic and Conventional Stethoscopes. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine .

Underwriters Laboratories. (2010). CE Marking Information. Retrieved December 3, 2010, from

Vincent, B., & Lambert, J. (2005). Complimentarity Between Noise Monitoring, Noise Mapping, Noise Recording, and Perception Survey. Internoise Rio .

Vollenhoven, E. V., Rotterdam, A. V., Dorenbos, T., & Schlesinger, F. G. (1969). Frequency Ananlysis of Heart Murmors. Medical & Biological Engineering , 227-232.

Wilkins, P. R., Hodgkin, M. J., & Lopez, E. R. (2004). Fundamentals of Lung and Heart Sounds Third Edition. Philadelphia: Mosby, Inc.

Zenk, B. M., Bratton, R. L., Flipse, T. R., & Page, E. E. (2004). Accuracy Of Detecting Irregular Cardiac Rhythms Via Telemedicine. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare , 10, 55-58.

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